This group of diseases includes several autoimmune pathologies, both primary and secondary, such as IgA nephropathy (the most prevalent type of glomerulonephritis), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and lupus
nephritis, among others. Even though many affected patients have only mild symptoms, a high percentage of cases develop kidney failure, with persistent proteinuria and microhematuria, artery hypertension, and tubulointerstitial
fibrosis, caused by the aggregation of immune complexes and the development of antibodies. Defects in the genes of the classical and alternative complement pathways have been associated with the development of these diseases,
as well as the presence of genetic alterations in genes that form part of apoptotic pathways, autoimmunity regulation, inflammatory cytokine production, and vesicular trafficking.
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