Hereditary hypomagnesemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of recessive as well as dominant disorders where magnesium homeostatis is altered. Approximately 95% of filtered magnesium is reabsorbed in nephrons;
however, some defects in genes that encode chlorine and potassium channels and in genes related to magnesium metabolism can lead to metabolic imbalance and massive loss of this electrolyte. Among the genetic disorders that cause hereditary hypomagnesemia are familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria, Bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, mitochondrial hypomagnesemia, and other metabolic syndromes.
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